I procrastinate. There is no doubt in my mind. It was a part of my life when I was a full-time student. It is a part of my life now as an instructor, parent, house-owner, volunteer, and general go-about-life individual. Somehow, though, things always get done and get done on time. I do not like being late and lateness is not an option for me. The idea of being late is stressful to me. Just under the wire is, however, acceptable. This is why I enjoyed this TED talk by Ted Urban so much. It really encouraged me to reflect on this character trait. Is it a flaw?!? I think it serves some purpose. When I get down to work, I am focused and determined. If I have too much time I tend to dawdle and get distracted. That’s my story, and I’m sticking to it!!
I wonder if my students procrastinate? My students come to class to learn how to communicate more effectively. They want and need those skills in their lives. I believe that most of the procrastination evident in my students happens before they commit to register for Speechreading. That is not uncommon. Research tells us that people typically wait 7-10 years from the time they first notice a problem with their hearing until they actually do something about it. When they find the Speechreading course and learn how to understand and cope with their hearing loss, they bemoan taking so long to finally make the commitment to act earlier. I’ll share the TED talk with them, but really, I’d like to share it with everyone who has not taken that step yet– so they learn the skills and improve their connection with others sooner!
If you want to see more from Ted Urban, take a look at his blog. Here’s one of his posts that talks about the decisions we make of how to spend our time on a daily basis.
One of the forum topics was confirmation bias. I had been unfamiliar with the term, but this graphic sums it up:
It’s important that we recognize our biases as we continue on the path as lifelong learners. We must be able to critically evaluate the information that inundates us on a daily basis. A quick search showed me that confirmation bias is not the only one we should be aware of!
Can we avoid all the potential landmines? Maybe not, but awareness of how we approach (or avoid) topics, research options, and make decisions can only help us to avoid many of the pitfalls that prevent an unbiased resolution.
Sidrah Ahmad’s digital project on the jigsaw method can be viewed here.
Jigsaw is an instructional strategy that demonstrates collaborative learning. Effective for student-centered learning, team-based learning, and project-based learning. Applicable and effective when used with a variety of subject areas. The best topics for this activity are easy enough for the students to teach but complex enough to require discussion. The topics should be able to divide into an appropriate number of groups, with equal numbers in each group.
The learner’s role is essential. Students are responsible for teaching their topic; in preparing for this, they must choose an activity that will allow others to learn from them. Students work together in small groups and decide on general knowledge on their given topic and discuss methods to teach this material to others. These groups are known as expert groups. These expert groups then break up into jigsaw groups. Each jigsaw group has a student with expertise from each expert group. The students then teach each other about their area of expertise. After sharing their knowledge, students return to their expert groups to debrief and then participate in a full class discussion.
The instructor must come up with the list of topics and ensure the division of the material is clear. Preparation for topics can be assigned as homework. As a close to the activity, the instructor can give a quiz to the jigsaw groups and have the expert groups evaluate the quiz, which can become a study guide.
The class discussion is important; everyone should be involved in evaluating the teaching strategies for quality, effectiveness, and challenges. Pre- and post-testing in the expert groups can ensure preparation. Student input into potential topics can increase engagement. Closure is essential and feedback from the instructor on participation and expectations ends the activity.
I first experienced this method through the Instructional Practice course, PIDP 3220. I was fascinated and intrigued. Sounds funny, but I really enjoyed the experience and saw the benefit of it as a teaching strategy. One of the things I have always been aware of is that if I am not able to explain a concept or topic to someone, I simply don’t really understand it myself. I like the collaborative component of this strategy. I like that the students get some insight into the challenges and successes of teaching others. I appreciate the evaluation component and think the class discussion at the end is an excellent way to share and benefit from the insights and reflections of others.
I will definitely keep this instructional strategy in my toolbox for the future.
Socratic thinking was a new term for me and was on the course forums before I was involved. I was curious, so I looked it up.
Socratic questioning is disciplined questioning that can be used to pursue thought in many directions and for many purposes, including: to explore complex ideas, to get to the truth of things, to open up issues and problems, to uncover assumptions, to analyze concepts, to distinguish what we know from what we don’t know, to follow out logical implications of thought or to control the discussion. The key to distinguishing Socratic questioning from questioning per se is that Socratic questioning is systematic, disciplined, deep and usually focuses on fundamental concepts, principles, theories, issues or problems.
These are excellent purposes and ones that I use quite frequently in the Speechreading class.
This site gave me an excellent cheat-sheet of the types and examples of Socratic questions:
|1. Questions for clarification:||
|2. Questions that probe assumptions:||
|3. Questions that probe reasons and evidence:||
|4. Questions about Viewpoints and Perspectives:||
|5. Questions that probe implications and consequences:||
|6. Questions about the question:||
As with SO MANY other topics in this course, these are concepts that I was already using. However, learning more about the research and support, the finer nuances, and advantages and disadvantages of these various techniques allows me to fine-tune my skills and have a variety of fully-supported instructional strategies at my disposal.
I use questioning techniques often in the Speechreading course. The types of questions described above provide an excellent framework to delve into complicated issues, analyze solutions, and explore multiple perspectives on hearing loss and communication. Sharing these categories with my students also provides them with support as they continue to be inundated with ‘research’ and promises of cures for hearing loss. They will certainly need to become critical thinkers as they continue their lifelong journey in this area.
Thea Brown’s piktochart infographic on the 3-2-1 instructional strategy was helpful in understanding this framework.
First of all, I loved the clean and clear message of the layout. The icons matched the content and clarified the strategy. It is not complicated to carry out, but the infographic provides an excellent reminder that all three of these steps are important: understanding, interest, and clarification. It also addressed pros, cons, and best practices.
This approach to instruction encourages the student to reflect on their own learning, and this reflection is something that I have recently learned to embrace, as it enhances my own learning. I want to encourage this in my students. Essentially, each student should write:
- 3 key concepts they have learned
- 2 things they would like to know more about
- 1 thing they are still unsure about
This provides an excellent way to assess how/if the students have processed the material. The discussion component is important to clarify the concepts and address the uncertainties. It gauges interest in additional areas, and identifies areas where teaching may need to be supplemented by additional or different approaches.
While this wouldn’t work for all the topics I address in the Speechreading course, I can see immediate application possibilities for several areas, such as how we hear, understanding the audiogram, and causes of hearing loss. 3-2-1 will definitely become a strategy utilized in Speechreading.
It’s amazing what you can learn when you jump into a forum discussion in this course!
When I first joined the forum discussions, Ashley’s topic was appreciative inquiry. I hadn’t heard of the term before, but the following information from Cooperrider caught my attention:
|Problem Solving||Appreciative inquiry|
|1. “Felt Need,” identification of Problem||1. Appreciating & Valuing the Best of “What Is”|
|2. Analysis of Causes||2. Envisioning “What Might Be”|
|3. Analysis & Possible Solutions||3. Dialoguing “What Should Be”|
|4. Action Planning (Treatment)|
|Basic Assumption: An Organization is a Problem to be Solved||Basic Assumption: An Organization is a Mystery to be Embraced|
Appreciative inquiry attempts ask questions and envision the future to foster positive relationships and build on the given potential of a person, organization or situation.
I came to use an appreciative inquiry activity in my class in a roundabout way. I had attended an outdoor camp with my son last year when he was in Grade 6, and the closing activity was called: Rock, Stick, Leaf. In quiet reflection (followed by sharing if they wanted), the kids were asked to think about three things they experienced over the 3-day camp: something they loved that ‘rocked’, a new thought or experience that they would try to keep up or make ‘stick’ once they returned home, and a thought or habit they were going to try to ‘leave’ behind. The ideas they shared in the middle of the woods that day were insightful and genuine.
I mentioned this experience to a friend, and she replied that it sounded like “I like, I wish, I wonder”. Intrigued, I did a google search and discovered this was actually an instructional strategy. As an introductory activity on the first day of my Level 2 class, I had 3 post-it notes ready for each student, labeled: I like, I wish, and I wonder. I asked them to focus on the Level one course they had just completed, hearing loss, or communication-related topics and gave them 5-10 minutes to complete the task. They shared their ideas.
Without any real guidance, the students generally talked about what they appreciated most about the first-level course (like), their hopes for what skills they would come out of the Level 2 class having learned (wish), and about their dreams for future hearing loss research and the desire to eliminate communication difficulties due to hearing loss. It was a very positive activity, and we all felt we were on the same page going forward into a new course. I will continue to do this version of appreciative inquiry on the first day of future second level courses.
Another class activity we focus on is problem-solving various communication problems. Perhaps I can use appreciative inquiry here also. Instead of focusing on the problem, we can, alternatively, focus on what is already working, and discuss how to expand on that. This positive philosophy is worth investigating.
Donna Perry’s digital project on flipped classrooms can be seen here and provided a lot of information on the technique.
I like the idea of starting with a focused question: does this type of teaching work in the 21st-century classroom? With this technique, students get exposure to new material outside of class via videos and then use class time to do the “harder work”. The steps:
- the instructor provides online lectures for the students to watch before coming to class,
- the students watch the videos in preparation for focused engagement during class time,
- active learning tools are used during class time: pre-assessment, group activities, and post-assessment.
Research shows increased test scores, and students report enhanced learning, more active engagement, and appreciation for increased opportunities for collaboration. The time spent teaching also yielded greater returns. Although more time was spent creating the online lectures, these could be re-used and students could rewatch as needed. This provided more valuable in-class time for discussing and applying the material. Students are able to learn at their own pace and can come to class with more insightful questions. Students must fulfill their responsibility to come to class prepared for this technique to work appropriately. The flipped classroom ultimately allows for more dynamic learning.
I liked the platform used for this project- Go Animate. I used it for my digital project in 3250 and found it relatively easy and adaptable.
I first became aware of the concept of flipped classrooms last summer through PIDP 3100. Here is a link to the blog post I made then.
I am still interested in trying to include some flipped classroom components in the Speechreading courses. I do believe that this technique would provide some much-needed time in the classroom for more active engagement; we would have more opportunities to practice the communication strategies that we talk about in class. This is where the true learning will flourish. Making time for active learning in the classroom will allow me to take advantage of all the great instructional techniques I’m learning about through this course. Incorporating the flipped classroom needs to become a priority for my upcoming professional development time. This project review was a timely reminder for me!
I’m learning so much about spaced repetition through the forum discussion this week. Here is a video that provides a solid introduction:
If you’d like more information on spaced repetition, take a look at this website:
For me, the takeaway messages about spaced repetition as a learning strategy are:
- One of the most important parts of the learning process is actually forgetting.
- Instead of studying more, you are studying more efficiently.
- It involves adding progressively longer and longer time intervals in between each of your study sessions, e.g 1 day, 7 days, 14 days…
- The neural pathways- once we begin to forget and then review- become much stronger so that we forget more slowly.
- You modify the time periods in which you study but can use whatever study method you choose.
- You spend less time confirming concepts you understand well and give priority to the information you need to review.
I’m taking a turn at moderating a forum this week for PIDP 3250. My designated topics are spacing and interleaving- two strategies to help us learn more effectively. A search on these topics led me to find this infographic, which I like and wanted to share: